On this page you can view GREVIO reporting information relevant for perpetrator programmes from countries where the reporting process is still ongoing. All information can be found on the Council of Europe website here.
As the reporting process has not yet been completed, there are less documents available (compared to countries where the reporting process has finished and the GREVIO reports have been adopted). This page will be updated with developments in the GREVIO reports for these countries.
To view an overview of the adopted GREVIO reports on our site, click here.
Date of signature: 22 February 2013
Date of ratification: 22 April 2014
Date of entry into force: 1 August 2014
[Only available in French - translated with DeepL]
Please provide information on the measures taken to set up or support programmes targeting perpetrators of domestic violence within the meaning of article 16, paragraph 1. In particular, please provide information on:
- the total number of existing programmes, their geographical distribution and the institution/entity/body responsible for their implementation (prison administration, probation service, NGOs, others), whether they are mandatory or voluntary, as well as the number of perpetrators registered each year;Law 1/2015 establishes an intervention and treatment program for male perpetrators of violence against women. Access to the program may be by own initiative or by judicial resolution. The implementation of the program was in2017 and at the national level because Andorra is a country with a territorial surface of 468 km.
- The measures taken within the framework of these programs to ensure that the safety, support and human rights of women victims are a priority and that their implementation is carried out in close coordination with specialized support services for women victims;
This program has been designed as a protection measure for women victims of violence and for this reason; the program depends on the Service of Integral Assistance to Women Victims of Gender Violence. The assistance to male aggressors becomes a different space from the one for victims.
The necessary coordination between the people responsible for the follow-up will be carried out to guarantee the safety of the women victims and, if necessary, of the dependent children.
- The way in which a gender-based understanding of violence against women has been included in these programs;
The Equality Policy Unit has approved the draft program of assistance for the promotion of non-violent relationships. The psycho-educational and pro-feminist approach has been selected for the treatment of gender-based violence. The intervention with male aggressors can be individual or group. The subjects treated in the program, although it is possible to adapt it to the circumstances of each case, are:
- Presentation of the group, motivation and objectives of the treatment.
- Taking responsibility and defense mechanisms.
- Introduction to the concept of violence and modalities.
- Control and power relations.
- Identification and expression of emotions.
- Cognitive distortions and irrational beliefs.
- Empathy with the victim. -Relationship skills and communication.
- Parental responsibility.
- Preparation for reintegration and post-treatment.
- Evaluation and completion of sessions.
- Funding sources and amounts for these programs;
This program depends on the Equality Policy Unit. As already mentioned, the implementation started in 2017 and the funding resources are integrated in the annual budget of this Unit. In the 2016 budget, two professionals (men) were hired. These professionals are a social worker and a psychologist.
- Measures taken to evaluate their impact.
The evaluation of the program is carried out through quantitative and qualitative questionnaires. These questionnaires are designed to measure the implementation and achievement of the objectives set out in the individual work plan.
Please provide information on the measures taken to set up or support programmes targeted at sexual offenders within the meaning of Article 16(2).
The prevention, intervention and treatment program referred to in the previous paragraph also responds to this obligation of the Convention. However, the Courts have the jurisdiction to establish as an ancillary measure the monitoring of the program. During the 2014-2015 periods, judicial diversions are made, if necessary, to private psychologists.
Date of signature: 11 September 2012
Date of ratification: 14 March 2016
Date of entry into force: 1 July 2016
[Only available in French]
A study on the treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence in Belgium started in 2016 in order to provide an overview of treatment programmes, how they are structured and organised, who and how they can be used, and how they can be organised in the future in an optimal way in relation to international guidelines. It makes the following observations.
31 initiatives meeting the criterion "specific treatment programme for perpetrators of domestic violence" were identified. They can be subdivided into three different categories: (1) initiatives that, as part of the activities of an organisation (which deals with a broader theme), are created as a project, method or strand that specifically focuses on the target group of perpetrators of partner violence, (2) initiatives that are not part of the activities of a broader organisation, but are an autonomous initiative that focuses on perpetrators of partner violence, and (3) initiatives that take the form of in-depth collaboration between several organisations.
Belgium has treatment programmes within the judicial framework but also extra-judicial provision on a voluntary basis. In 2015, just under 2600 people received treatment within the described Belgian offer. 700 authors can be treated simultaneously. The assistance provided to these persons is mainly characterised by a strong structural (permanent) collaboration with the judiciary and the assistance sector. Initiatives that do not have their own offer of assistance for authors generally refer these persons to other initiatives of which they are aware.
The programmes are very varied, but some common outlines can be observed. Only the initiatives focused on case coordination do not intervene directly themselves. The other initiatives generally offer individual treatment at the level of the author. Group treatment (with several perpetrators) is more common in programmes that focus more broadly on VIF and partner violence. Most treatments are organised on an outpatient basis. The most common assistance is to provide information and counselling, followed by therapy and referral. Initiatives do not usually offer legal aid.
CAW supports the victims but also accompanies all those affected by VIF in order to create security, stop the violence and prevent it from happening again. The target group includes perpetrators and victims as well as couples. The focus is on risk assessment, identification of indicators, creating safety through, for example, time-outs, understanding the cycle of violence and special care.
Initiatives focusing on case co-ordination are aimed at a wider audience, while other initiatives focus more on the perpetrator and often involve the victim as well. Stopping or reducing the acts of violence is the most common reason for deciding that a case can be successfully closed. No grounds for refusal based on gender or type of relationship are applied. The minimum age to participate in a programme is usually 18.
In Flanders, several projects focus on accompanying perpetrators of VIF within the framework of the Global Plan, the content of which differs locally, but also within the framework of national training projects such as Dader in zicht, Slachtoffer in Beeld and the Leerprojecten voor Daders van Seksueel Geweld (learning projects for perpetrators of sexual violence). Accompaniment is tailor-made and can take the form of individual consultations or group meetings. Only a House of Justice can refer perpetrators to this form of support. The project 'herstelgericht werken met daders en slachtoffers van familiaal geweld' (working with perpetrators and victims of domestic violence for their recovery) of CAW Boom-Mechelen-Lier vzw was subsidised in 2018. This project focuses on crisis intervention and follow-up. Touché vzw also received a subsidy for the project 'Het beste uit spanning' (Making the best of tensions), which enables people who have been confronted with violence to give a positive meaning to their experience by helping others. However, this project is aimed at a wider audience than VIF.
The non-profit organisation Moderator enables victims and perpetrators and their relatives to talk to each other in a climate of trust. This mediation service is subsidised by Flanders. A mediator creates a safe space to talk about the facts and their consequences. If necessary, he or she helps to notify the court of the outcome of the mediation. Mediation is free of charge and available in all judicial districts. The not-for-profit association acted as a mediator in 403 cases of offences between family members between 2016 and 2018 (160 cases in 2016, 135 in 2017 and 108 in 2018). In 2017-2018, it focused strongly on "tandem mediation" in VIF cases, where the parties are immediately brought together and systematically work with two mediators in security. The association has also focused on strengthening cooperation and consultation with partners in the context of VIF cases. It is thus more involved in the collaboration with the VIF and in the chain approach, in which the tandem method can also take place.
Non-detained litigants receiving support from the Maisons de Justice in the context of implementing a judicial or administrative decision are referred by the legal assistants to the support services in order to implement the conditions imposed. The Maisons de justice collaborate in this context with various organisations that offer reintegration and recidivism prevention services to those subject to the law.
Flanders has a plan to increase the accessibility of assistance and services for non-prisoners sentenced to a sentence. The aim is to make maximum use of ordinary assistance services, and a number of legislative and budgetary initiatives have been prepared to this end to allow for more extensive funding of assistance to persons subject to trial.
The French Community has adopted the decree of 13 October 2016 on the approval and subsidisation of partners providing assistance to litigants. Applications for the approval of services providing assistance to individuals and meeting space services are currently being examined. Several services intended to provide information and assistance to victims on the one hand and to make perpetrators of domestic violence accountable on the other are structurally funded, such as Praxis, the Centre for the Prevention of Conjugal and Family Violence, SOS Viol, etc. An inventory of awareness or training sessions on partner violence offered to prisoners in prison was carried out in 2016.
Care programmes for sexual offenders (Article 16)
Three cooperation agreements on the guidance and treatment of sexual offenders (AICS) in Belgium aim to enforce and apply the law, prevent recidivism and promote the (re)integration of AICS into society while avoiding stigmatisation. These agreements were evaluated in 2011 by the FPS Justice.
Therapeutic follow-up is managed by three regional support centres (in Flanders, the Walloon Region and Brussels) working with approved specialist teams. These teams are defined as multidisciplinary extra-penitentiary teams specialised in the problems of AICS. The support centres are the centres providing support to multidisciplinary teams specialised in the guidance or treatment of AICS mainly outside the prison environment.
Specialised teams provide processing and give opinions (except in Brussels where the Support Centre gives opinions), for example for the courts of enforcement of sentences. The treatment agreement between the person concerned, the judicial assistant at the Maison de Justice and the person in charge allows the latter to inform the justice system in the event of absence from the sessions or in the event of unilateral cessation of guidance by the person concerned.
The cooperation agreements provide for the installation of specialised psychosocial teams (or Psychosocial Service, SPS), in penitentiary establishments and social defence establishments or sections organised at federal level. The priority mission of the SPS is psychosocial advice, as a reference element in early release procedures such as electronic monitoring or conditional release, both for convicted persons and for internees in a social defence establishment or section.
With regard to outpatient monitoring, judicial assistants are responsible for guiding and monitoring the conditions imposed on the early release of prisoners or internees, persons under probationary conditions and persons sentenced to an autonomous work or probation sentence. They are responsible for investigations and social guidance imposed by the competent authorities. They motivate and support the person concerned in his or her reintegration into society.
The skills and experience acquired by the support centres enable them to act as consultants to specialised centres that request them. They thus play a supporting role both in the guidance and treatment of individual cases and in the overall approach and scientific methodology. They can also offer specific training.
In Wallonia, 65 Mental Health Services (SSM) are accredited and are open to the general public. In 2016, 1,281 AICS were taken care of in the specialised SSMs or specialised health teams (ESS), 890 people were followed up and 391 new requests were followed up. 41 new requests were refused or redirected. In 2017, 1,309 AICS were taken care of, 920 people being followed up and 389 new requests having been followed up. 22 new applications were refused or redirected.
The pilot project COSA (Cirkels voor Ondersteuning, Samenwerking en Aanspreekbaarheid) aims to reintegrate conditionally released AICS who are therefore following a treatment and support under a judicial warrant and avoid their recidivism. This project relies on a network of volunteers and professionals. The risk of recidivism increases when AICS find themselves socially isolated. Participants in this project are trained to immediately detect any signs of re-offending behaviour. This project continues on the Dutch-speaking side by complementing the classical treatment and reintegration of those AICS who are at high risk of relapse. Professionals and volunteers work together to form a circle around an AICS released after a prison sentence or via an alternative sanction. The circles are accompanied by a professional coordinator who coaches the volunteers and regulates the collaboration between the circles. Victims do not actively participate in the circles. However, one of the tasks of the volunteer is to talk to the professional about the facts and the victims. The victim's situation and experiences are therefore discussed during the interviews.
In addition, Flanders has committed itself to check to what extent the general offer to the AICS can be streamlined, based on the recommendations of the evaluation report on cooperation agreements. The steering committee active within the framework of the agreement has drawn up a concept note with recommendations to streamline this offer. The Flemish Agency for People with Disabilities (VAPH) has created a residential offer for (presumed) disabled persons in residential care. Regulations are being drawn up to provide them with specific reception facilities, for example by facilitating the transfer of interned people with disabilities from prison and forensic psychiatry to mainstream care for people with disabilities, including the specific offer for perpetrators of transgressive sexual behaviour available through the Leerproject voor Daders van Seksueel Geweld (LDSG). An individual offer is offered there in the form of a learning and guidance process imposed on the AICS. The offence is seen as an opportunity to change the behaviour of the AICS through awareness, understanding, empowerment and attitude change. The project has evolved over the years from a training programme to a greater focus on the care of AICS.
- Report from an NGO Coalition "Together against Violence" - in French only
Evaluation of Perpetrator-focused Programs
It should be pointed out, first of all, that apart from programs focused on perpetrators of domestic violence, there are no programs for perpetrators/perpetrators of other forms of violence.
In French-speaking Belgium, Praxis, Prélude, Rescue and Services d'aide aux justiciables offer programs for perpetrators of domestic violence. Praxis vzw offers accountability groups for perpetrators of conjugal and intra-family violence, either on a mandate from Justice (FWB grant) or on a voluntary basis (RW and COCOF grant). Volunteers" make up 33% of Praxis' files. In Wallonia in 2015,219 non-judicialized perpetrators of violence benefited from Praxis' support. In 2016, Praxis accompanied 190 "volunteer" perpetrators. In Flanders,programs for perpetrators of domestic violence are sometimes voluntary; sometimes they are imposed by a judicial measure (carried out by the Centers for General Welfare (CAW) or by the Mental Health Centers).
The association Centre d'Appui Bruxellois (CAB), subsidized by the Federal Public Service Justice, intervenes within the framework of the cooperation agreement between Justice, Health and Personal Assistance concerning the guidance and treatment of sexual offenders residing in Brussels. It provides support to professionals in the judicial, penitentiary, health and personal assistance sectors. It is responsible for the evaluation and referral of sexual offenders to the most appropriate specialized team for their guidance or treatment. In 2017, the CAB received 176 new mandates, including 126 new court cases, twice as many as the previous year. The number of active files in 2017 is 410, an increase of 38% over the previous year. 235 perpetrators of sexual offenses were processed during 2017. These rising figures are likely to increase further in the coming years, especially as recent legislative changes have added new sexual offences to the Penal Code and have broadened the scope of the probationary measure. The CAB does not propose treatment of perpetrators, but redirects to other services that do not apply a uniform approach.
There are not enough author-oriented programs and little information circulates about them; the content and impact of the programs are not evaluated, only numbers and statistics are observed. The content and impact of the programs are not evaluated, only figures and statistics are observed. In addition, the interpretation of violence does not seem to be the same in all the services providing assistance to those subject to legal proceedings. Authors who do not respect their follow-up obligations are not sanctioned.
The services that take care of (non-judicial) authors are not uniformly accessible throughout the territory. In order to improve the geographical coverage of the Walloon territory, Praxis has extended its offer to the Province of Luxembourg as of September 2017.
In the last three years, there has been a decrease in the number of cases coming to the associations specializing in the issue of domestic violence. The causes are said to be a lack of staff in the area of police misconduct, a less rigorous application of circular COL 4/2016, as well as more convictions to a labor sentence for these crimes, measures that do not allow for a real awareness of the perpetrators of their acts. It does not seem that clear guidelines are established in this area and the choice of referral to a program depends very much on the magistrate. The magistrate is insufficiently sensitized and not easily accessible when attempts are made to do so.
Ultimately, civil society fears that it will unravel work done with perpetrators that is long-term, integrates recidivism prevention, and is part of the process of accountability and change. In the current conditions, the lack of funding risks shortening the duration of treatment in order to be able to ensure that the authors are taken care of.
On the Flemish side, the lack of a comprehensive policy regarding perpetrators of intra-family violence relegates this area to local subsidies. Flemish programs for perpetrators are often not relevant and are very limited. There are no offers for allophones, perpetrators with disabilities, etc. Perpetrators with a dual diagnosis (apart from the possibility of internment, which is the case for most perpetrators of domestic violence) are very difficult to place. Until recently, French-speaking perpetrators of violence living in the Brussels periphery (part of Flanders) were referred to Praxis Brussels, without funding for their care, due to a lack of agreement between the communities. This support had to be suspended at the beginning of 2018.
- Develop a treatment system for perpetrators of all forms of violence against women, based on empirical research, integrating an accountability approach, evaluated regularly and covering the entire territory, regardless of the perpetrator's linguistic affiliation; Put in place a follow-up mechanism that is integrated into the measure itself and that obliges perpetrators to contact the organization that took care of them to see if there has been a recurrence and if the perpetrators want to talk about it; Increase the accessibility of programs for perpetrators, especially in the rural context and for allophone perpetrators;
- Put in place a follow-up mechanism that is integrated into the measure itself and that obliges the perpetrators to contact the organization that took care of them to see if there has been a recurrence and if the perpetrators want to talk about it;
- Increase the accessibility of programs for authors, especially in the rural context and for allophone authors;
- Guarantee an accompaniment long enough (currently 45 hours spread over 6 months) to maintain the quality and the objective of non-recurrence;
- Flanders needs to develop a thorough and elaborate policy specifically concerning perpetrators of intra-family violence.
- Report from CAW Brussels (Centrum voor Algemeen Welzijnswerk Brussel)
*No references to article 16*
*No references to article 16*
- Contribution from "Medecins du monde" - in French only
*No references to article 16*
- Contribution from the Belgian Disability Forum - in French only
*No references to article 16*
Date of signature: 8 March 2013
Date of ratification: 7 November 2013
Date of entry into force: 1 August 2014
There are two types of work with domestic violence perpetrators: mandatory psychosocial treatment and a voluntary work programme. In the reporting period, the entity gender centres and two civil society organisations developed and tested four pilot programmes for work with violence perpetrators. A total of 67 professionals underwent additional training for work with the perpetrators of violence, while 62 perpetrators voluntarily participated in the implementation of these programmes.
In accordance with the Law on Protection from Domestic Violence of FBIH, a Rulebook was passed relative to the manner and place of implementation of the protection measures of mandatory psychosocial treatment for domestic violence perpetrators.66 Thereby, the legal framework was put in place to implement the protection measures of the mandatory psychosocial treatment of perpetrators of domestic violence at mental health centres. In that regard, two education sessions were held for about 30 persons focusing on the implementation of the said treatment. The purpose of the protection measures imposed on the perpetrators of violence under the Law on Protection from Domestic Violence is to provide for protection and support of the victims of violence and thus ensure primary care for the victims of violence. The costs incurred in a psychosocial treatment are paid by the court that imposes the respective measure. Such a practice has proved to be problematic in terms of financial planning and payment of the costs incurred in relation to the said measure. However, research conducted by the Association of Evaluators in BIH into the impact of protection measures using a sample of measures pronounced over a period of five years in Sarajevo Canton67 has shown that this measure yielded the best results in terms of the long-term occurrence of recidivism. The research also highlighted positive changes in family relations for the majority of perpetrators.
In addition to the aforementioned, special programmes were devised for voluntary work with the perpetrators of domestic violence. Although they do not represent the implementation of protection measures, the said programmes that are implemented in self-help groups have yielded significant results in terms of the prevention of repeated domestic violence. To that regard, a programme was drafted and published68 and 28 voluntary treatment session conducted within self-help groups for around 230 persons in FBIH. Some NGOs that operate safe houses have ongoing programmes of psychosocial assistance for the perpetrators of violence. The Local Democracy Foundation, for example, conducts such treatments through self-help groups on an ongoing basis following the professional methodology that was harmonised with the Ministry of Labour, Social Policy and Refugees of Sarajevo Canton, which co-finances the accommodation of victims of domestic violence in the safe house in Sarajevo. Furthermore, ‘Medica’ from Zenica has a psychological counselling service within which they also work with the perpetrators of domestic violence by way of individual counselling/psychotherapy and marital and family counselling. The said programmes focus on the prevention of future violence and thus place the needs of victims of violence at the core of the programme. The issue understanding violence against women from the gender perspective is covered and discussed within education sessions for professionals related to psychosocial treatment and within the education sessions of self-help groups. Furthermore, the programme of work with the perpetrators of violence (psychosocial treatment and self-help groups) also covers the issue of understanding violence against women from the gender perspective. The self-help programmes are project funded and conducted by NGOs in cooperation with the centres for social welfare and the GC FBIH. The programme has yielded results in as much as the attendees of the programme were not recorded later as recidivists, thus showing the positive improvements in their conduct.
The Law on Protection from Domestic Violence in RS prescribes that in the case of domestic violence the courts can pronounce protection measure upon the perpetrators of violence whereby they undergo mandatory psychosocial treatment. The implementation methodology of the said measure is described in detail in the Rulebook on the manner and place of implementation of the protection measure of mandatory psychosocial treatment. A special achievement in 2013 that relates to the task of improving the systemic implementation of the measure of psychosocial treatment of the perpetrators of violence within the territory of RS is reflected in the adoption of the following two documents: ‘The minimum standards for the establishment and functioning of psychosocial treatment of men and work with male perpetrators of gender-based violence’ and ‘The training module for professionals for enhancement of capacities for a psychosocial treatment of men perpetrators of gender-based violence: critical issues and review of capacity building’ while in 2015 - the Resources package for a response of healthcare providers (in RS and FBIH) to gender-based violence was adopted.69
In 2017, the Ministry of Health and Social Protection of RS prepared, updated and adapted the aforementioned training manual for the training of trainers on the psychosocial treatment of the perpetrators of gender-based violence and the training module ‘Psychosocial Treatment of Gender-based Violence Perpetrators. On the basis of the said manual and module, the education of professionals in RS was conducted in 2017 for the implementation of psychosocial treatment of gender-based violence perpetrators. In 2018, the consolidated resources package was published and distributed. The resources package comprised of eight publications tailored to healthcare providers.
In RS there is an operational ‘Men’s Centre’ in Modriča, which is the first of the kind. It is organised within the citizens’ association ‘Budućnost’ (Future) from Modriča and works with perpetrators of domestic violence. Established in Modriča on 25 November 2010, the Men’s Centre provides therapy and counselling to perpetrators of violence and it strives to develop the social skills of men in the community. The experience of the Men’s Centre shows that men who committed this type of violence did not repeat it after undergoing psychosocial treatment. A connection with a safe house has been established. Once a victim of violence is taken care of in a safe house, volunteers from the Men’s Centre contact the perpetrator within 24 hours and advise him to check in for psychosocial treatment. In a large number of cases, a perpetrator checks in on a voluntary basis.
In addition to the protection measure of mandatory psychosocial treatment for the perpetrators of violence, there is a statutory protection measure on alcohol and narcotic drugs rehabilitation. The latter is described in more detail in the Rulebook on the manner and place of implementation of the protection measure of mandatory alcohol and narcotic drugs rehabilitation.70 In 2017 and 2018, the club of rehabilitated alcoholics of the City of Banja Luka, supported by the GC RS and UN Women, within the project ‘Standards and Engagement for Prevention of Violence against Women and Domestic Violence in BIH - increased access to high quality multi-sector services for the survivors of violence against women and domestic violence at the local level” conducted a pilot project titled ‘Stop the Violence and Addiction” through a new Model of Psychosocial Work with Perpetrators, which was integrated into a multi-sectorial institutional response to violence against women and domestic violence by way of signing a memorandum of understanding with the main actors involved in the treatment of perpetrators (the judiciary, healthcare and the centres for social welfare).
Programmes for work with sex offenders
The data relative to the work with sex offenders is not available.
*No shadow reports yet*
Date of signature: 11 May 2011
Date of ratification: 12 October 2017
Date of entry into force: 1 February 2018
The Federal Government believes that working with perpetrators of domestic violence, especially in the form of inter-institutional cooperation alliances, can be an important factor in preventing renewed violence. Work with perpetrators has gained in importance, among other things due to the Act to Strengthen Perpetrator Responsibility, which came into force on 1 March 2013. The Act contains provisions to improve and expand the possibilities for assigning offenders to qualified offender programmes by means of an order issued bythe public –25–prosecutor’s office or by the court in the course of investigations or criminal proceedings. Under the Act, perpetrator courses may last for a period of one year.Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Täterarbeit Häusliche Gewalt (Federal Working Group on Work with Perpetrators of Domestic Violence (BAG TäHG))–an inter-institutional, intercultural umbrella organisation for facilities for perpetrators of domestic violence –is an important stakeholder in work with offenders in Germany. In inter-institutional cooperation alliances to combat domestic violence, these facilities work with the police, public prosecutor’s offices, the courts, victim protection institutions, probation services, youth welfare offices and counselling centres. The member organisations have agreed to comply with the BAG’s standards for perpetrator work. BAG TäGH is a member of the Federal-Länder Working Group on Domestic Violence. The Federal Government repeatedly funds and supports BAG TäHG projects with the aim of promoting nationwide harmonisation of quality standards in perpetrator work, for example by developing and implementing a procedure for entry diagnostics, documentation and exit surveys, according to which as many perpetrator work facilities should operate as possible.
In Hamburg, the Beta project, which was supported by a grant of around €363,000 in the period 1 October 2018 to 31 December 2019, provides counselling for perpetrators, both female and male. The work of the project is based on the quality standards of Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Täterarbeit (BAG-TäHG). The services offered by the perpetrator counselling centre are based on a gender-specific understanding of violent behaviour and include a culturally sensitive counselling approach. For the first time, violent women also belong to the target group of the perpetrator counselling centre, and are counselled in a one-to-one setting. The programmes do not offer a fixed number of places; in BASFI’s segment for violent people, 820 people were counselled and given guidance in social training courses from 1 October 2018 to 30 September 2019. Access to recognised training courses takes the form of orders from public prosecutors and the courts. This counselling approach ensures that more perpetrators of reported cases are held responsible for their actions.
The programme also includes counselling (if desired) for the (ex-)partner and her children and makes their safety the main focus of the counselling. In seeking help and advice for themselves, women affected by violence turn to a women’s counselling centre, which cooperates with the perpetrator counselling centre.
ORANGE is a support and counselling service for behavioural change for men who are abusive in partnerships or who wish to receive support in preventing violence. It sees itself as part of a chain of intervention against domestic violence. By linking the perpetrator counselling service to the justice system and by choosing an association with close links to the justice system, close cooperation is ensured between the perpetrator counselling centres and child and youth welfare institutions. As part of the ORANGE project, the organisation Bewährungs-und Straffälligenhilfe Thüringen e.V. offers counselling for offenders in Erfurt, Gera, Meiningen and Mühlhausen. These counselling centres are funded from the budget of the Thuringian Ministry for Migration, Justice and Consumer Protection. They work in accordance with the standards of the Federal Working Group on Offenders of Domestic Violence. The primary goal of the social training programme is to prevent renewed violence. This is a cognitive behaviour-oriented programme which is both violence-centred and confrontational. It is assumed that the exhibited violent behaviour has been learned and can thus be changed. In personal talks and in a social group programme, offenders address the topic of violence, take responsibility for their actions and learn new conflict resolution strategies.
Programmes for perpetrators of sexual violence
“Kein Täter werden” (Don’t become an offender) One treatment programme that aims to prevent sexual abuse of children involves the prevention project “Kein Täter werden”(Don’t become an offender), which was set up in 2005 at the Charité hospital in Berlin and is now in place at eleven different locations Germany-wide. The aim of the project is to offer men with paedophile and hebephile tendencies therapy to prevent their first offence or repeated offense of sexual abuse of children. The therapy is designed to help those affected and enable them to deal responsibly with their tendency and not to act on it. In 2016, the legal basis was created for a model project on this topic run by the statutory health insurance funds (Section 65d of Book V of the Social Code(SGB V)). For a period of five years, the health insurance funds will support service providers who treat patients with paedophilic sexual disorders.
Within the remit of the public prosecution offices and the courts of Lower Saxony, courses on violence counselling for perpetrators of domestic and sexualised violence have existed for some time, in some cases since 2014. The association “Männerbüro e. V.” in Hanover also offers courses for fathers who become violent towards their children (girls) (so-called Caring Dads courses). Participation in these social training courses, which are mainly offered and implemented by the perpetrator counselling centres in Lower Saxony at eleven model project locations for perpetrator work, is usually offered to the accused/convicted in the course of investigation/criminal proceedings conducted against them, usually by order in the form of a probation order or in the case of a temporary suspension of proceedings pursuant to Section 153a of the Code of Criminal Procedure (Strafprozessordnung –StPO).
- SHADOW REPORT – SOLWODI DEUSTCHLAND e.V.
Article 16 – Preventive intervention and treatment programmes
State Parties of the Istanbul Convention are required to establish perpetrator programmes as laid down in Art. 16 of the Istanbul Convention. Germany has a nation-wide perpetrator pro-gramme in place: Federal Association for Work with Perpetrators of Domestic Violence (Bunde-sarbeitsgemeinschaft Täterarbeit Häusliche Gewalt – BAG TäHG – e. V.) in Germany. Perpetrator programmes are lacking, because they only deal with a very small number of men. These programmes have only recently started to include culture and ethnicity into the relevant programmes. With regard to establishing perpetrator programmes for migrant and asylum-seeking men, integration aspects should be implemented into perpetrator programmes, as migrant men are e.g. not aware of the given host country legal system. They will also need assistance in establishing a new social system in the country of destination to e.g. avoid isolation. The topic of children, whereby men can be engaged in exchanging ideas about child up-bringing etc., can be an icebreaker topic (Wells et al. 2019). Research shows that perpetrator programmes lack to take different forms of GBV into account (not only sexual and domestic violence, but also e.g. psychological violence or crimes in the name of so-called honour) as well as female perpetrators of GBV (i.e. especially psychological violence) (Wells 2020). The German government should not only sponsor perpetrator programmes focusing on men and domestic and sexual violence, but also include other forms of GBV crimes and female perpetrators in order to be able to prevent all types of GBV crimes from all type of perpetrators.
*’No references to article 16*
Date of signature: 21 May 2012
Date of ratification: 29 July 2014
Date of entry into force: 1 November 2014
Work with offenders –Domestic violence
The Managing Abusive Behaviour (MAB) service, run by the FSWS, currently consists of three main services. The Domestic Abuse Intervention Programme (DAIP) (previously known as Men’s Services) which was set up in 1994, and at that time only targeted male perpetrators. In 2015, the National Audit Office (NAO) recommended a service for women who engage in abusive behaviour which led to the Women Who Use Force (WWUF) service being set up. Lastly, the Child to Parent Violence (CPV) Service was set up in 2017.During 2017 and 2018, the MAB service was made up of one coordinator, one part-time social worker and four contracted group facilitators who are all provided with support and supervision on a regular basis(refer to Annex 2).
Services for male perpetrators
The DAIP aims to assist male perpetrators who are abusive in intimate relationships to become aware of, understand and take responsibility for their behaviour with the aim of initiating behavioural change. This is done through a group programme which spans over 28 weeks. Prior to being accepted into the programme, perpetrators hold individual sessions with a professional who will assess their suitability for the group. The service also liaises with the Domestic Violence Unit (DVU) to provide a feedback loop regarding the progress of the perpetrator. The service users are also provided with a social work service when required. Following the group programme, the participants are also encouraged to receive continued support through an open support group. Support on an individual basis is also provided in times of crises. In 2017, six of the initial twelve participants completed the programme which started in 2016. In 2018, six of the initial twelve participants completed the programme that started in 2017.
Women Who Use Force
This service was set up in 2015 and was constructed on the belief that some women can resort to using force within an intimate relationship because they feel the need to gain short term control on specific abusive relationship dynamics. The assistance was meant to be provided within a group setting following a thorough assessment of the situation; however, this has not taken place since there were never enough persons to initiate a group. In fact, in 2017, the service received only four referrals and only one woman was assessedand confirmed as eligible for the service. In 2018, there was only one referral, but the referred client decided not to use the service.
Child to Parent Violence Services
This service was launched in late 2017 and started operating in January 2018 and targets child to parent violence (CPV).Since its inception it has received fourteen referrals which required in-depth interventions where the aspect of CPV is concerned. Other cases which require less targeted intervention are then followed-up by other services including, but not exclusively, the DVU. Work targeting CPV, which is mainly concerned with the aspects of secondary and tertiary prevention, is deemed necessary since it tries to target possible intergenerational transmission of violence or the repetition of experienced or witnessed behaviour.
These services are considered as a continuum of service aimed at ensuring the safety and well-being of the victims, mostly women and children. Therefore, they ensure that the work with perpetrators continues to meet the needs of the victims and the children involved. The MAB service receives voluntary as well as court mandated referrals. When necessary it consults and refers to other services, such as Psychological Services of FSWS, other services within FSWS or Mental Health Services. With respect to court mandated cases, liaison is conducted with services, departments and entities including the DPP and the Court. Given the size of the island, the geographical distribution can be considered of good cover age since the services are rendered in the centre of Malta.
In 2017, the MAB service handled a total of 111 cases and119 cases in 2018. Furthermore in2017 and 2018, the MAB service received 39 and 34 new referrals and re-contacts respectively (refer to Annex 3).
As explained above, these services are viewed as part of a continuum of services aimed at keeping women and children safe from DV. This work is therefore conducted alongside the services offered to victims and children who witness domestic violence, namely the Domestic Violence Hub (which was officially launched in 2019 but all its planning and organisation took place in 2018) and the DVU. The coordination between units has been ongoing since their inception, and the services for perpetrators and those for victims are run by the same service area leader. This means that when male perpetrators are undertaking the DAIP, their partners/spouses are invited to attend support groups aimed at ensuring consistency and continuity in the provision of protection and safety of the women and children involved.
During the group sessions as part of MAB, themes such as patriarchy, misogyny and gender roles are addressed. The aspect of fathering is also discussed, however within a group setting, in-depth work on this area is not possible therefore whenever more work with the client on this is required, the men –and when it is safe, the couple–are referred to services which deal with parenting and familial aspects in more depth, such as Positive Parenting, Co-Parenting, Family Therapy, and Home-Based Therapy offered by FSWS. This is done following an in-depth assessment, which does not only assess the eligibility for these services, but also the safety and well-being of the victims and their children. This is also done in collaboration with the DVU. This measure is also considered as a form of prevention which enhances the aspect of protection. This is because men are not only being challenged in terms of their abusive beliefs, behaviour and attitude but are also challenged to become responsible fathers who meet the best interests of their children.
The MAB programme also tackles attitudes and beliefs that impact the context of domestic violence. For instance, aspects of gender inequality are outlined. These components are essential in combating violence against women and DV. This is a challenging aspect since the work entails challenging dominant discourses, cultural attitudes, prejudice and stereotypes which continue to shed light on victim blaming and gender inequality. Thus, the importance of working with different services on a micro and meso level, as well as interventions on a macro level– that is policy and legal framework–remain a priority.
These programmes are funded by the Government through the budget for the FSWS (refer to Annex4).Regarding the impact of these programmes, currently every programme is evaluated by the person receiving the service, as well as by the feedback from the partner/spouse concerned. Where formal evaluation is concerned, throughout 2018, the service has been working on a strategy which aims at meeting the emerging needs of victims and children. This strategy includes the services for perpetrators, which is an integral part of the continuum of services. In view of this, once this strategy is implemented the service will be evaluated.
Within the DPP, The Psychology Unit consists of two forensic psychologists who are primarily tasked with carrying out assessments and offering interventions to offenders currently under supervision. The unit receives referrals through the Court, the Parole Board or directly through the probation officers. Once referred, offenders undergo a psychological assessment, in order to determine their psychological needs. Through the assessment, offenders might be directed towards a programme. As part of its services, the unit offers an anger management programme and a sex offender programme(discussed in Section 3.6 of this report).The Anger Management programme targets community-based offenders aged 16 years and over. This programme is specifically designed to deal with anger management issues and consists of 9-12 sessions lasting approximately 90 minutes each.
Sessions are offered on a one-to-one basis. Following the referral, candidates are assessed for problematic anger by the psychologists delivering the interventions. Candidates who do not score at pathological or clinical levels of anger are directed to more appropriate interventions. Those offenders with severe learning difficulties, who are currently unstable, or have acute dependency/substance misuse issues may not be deemed suitable to follow the programme.
Work with offenders –Sexual violence
The Community-based Sex Offender Intervention Programme, also run by the DPP, has adopted a modular approach to addressing sexual offending behaviour in offenders aged 16 years and over. An initial in-depth assessment of sexual offenders who are referred to the Psychology Unit is conducted to identify the needs of the offender. Following this, the results of an assessment would help determine which modules the client would benefit t from most. Sessions are then offered on a one-to-one basis. All offenders currently being followed by the DPP, for a sexual offence, will be considered eligible for screening. Those offenders, who suffer severe learning difficulties, are currently considered unstable or have an acute dependency/substance misuse issue, may not be deemed eligible for the programme.
- NGO report
No information on perpetrator programmes.
Date of signature: 7 July 2011
Date of ratification: 5 July 2017
Date of entry into force: 1 November 2017
During the last decades there has been an increasing focus on help and treatment for perpetrators of violence and sexual abuse. Adequate help in addition to criminal sanctions can have a preventive effect. Help and treatment for perpetrators is therefore a high-priority area for the Government, and is part of the integrated efforts to combat violence and abuse. The Regional Resource Centres for Violence, Traumatic Stress and Suicide Prevention have, in cooperation with St. Olav’s Hospital, Department of Brøset, responsibility for contributing to the municipalities having competence in anger management and work with perpetrators of violence. The anger management model has established treatment options for perpetrators of violence in all regions. The education programme has a duration of 100 hours, divided into six gatherings over two semesters. Therapists are trained through Norway’s family counselling offices, mental health care/Regional Psychiatric Centres and the municipal service apparatus. Training is also offered to the Norwegian Correctional Service. EUR 140,838 is allocated for the purpose of spreading the anger management model in the budget of the Ministry of Health and Care Services. Research is being conducted on the treatment model through a PhD study initiated by the Brøset Competence Centre. The Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies receives earmarked funds through the Government budget (EUR 534,861 in 2020) to study the knowledge base for the treatment and course for victims and perpetrators of violence. The Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies has prepared an electronic guide for the work of the health and care services with domestic violence. The guide contains a separate section about persons who perpetrate violence and abuse. In 2020, the Ministry of Health and Care Services appropriated funds to general strategy work for the comprehensive and planned development of the work aimed at perpetrators of violence and abusers. In addition to Brøset and the Regional Resource Centres for Violence, Traumatic Stress and Suicide Prevention, the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies and Alternative to Violence could be important contributors to this strategy work. The Family Counselling Service also offers a programme for families with challenges related to violence, cf. discussion under Section D. Family counselling offices can be found throughout Norway, and at the start of 2020, there was a total of 49 family counselling offices. Government grants are also allocated to the private foundation Alternative to Violence (ATV). Within the framework of the allocation, ATV shall provide treatment options for perpetrators of domestic violence and their families. The state grant in 2020 was approximately EUR 6.55 million. Most ATV offices also receive funding from the municipalities. In 2019, the state operating subsidy was approximately EUR5,73 million, and the municipal operating subsidy was approximately EUR 2,87million. ATV provides low-threshold treatment without any requirement of a referral. As of August 2020, there was a total of 14 ATV offices spread across most of Norway. A new office will be established in Trondheim in 2020. ATV cooperates with other services, such as the Child Welfare Service, Family Counselling Service, public health service, crisis centres, schools and the police. A total of 1,649 clients received treatment from ATV in 2019, compared with 1,442 in 2018. In co-operation with ATV, the Norwegian Centre for Violence and Traumatic Stress Studies is conducting a study of process and outcome of therapy of men who seek help for their use of violence. The study will investigate to what extent the treatment (group or individual) provided by ATV leads to a positive change in perpetrators of violence. The study is ongoing (2009-2020). F. Support programs for sex offenders BASIS is a voluntary nationwide treatment option for persons who have been convicted of a sexual offence and are serving their sentences, and who are assumed to have a heightened risk of committing new sexual offences. The aim is to provide medical care to inmates who are believed to be in particular need of specialised sexual offence treatment. The treatment will be followed up after their sentence has been served. In 2020, public low threshold and comprehensive treatment options will be established for persons who are at risk of committing child sexual assault (“Help is Available”). The options will be established in the South-Eastern Norway Regional Health Authority and Western Norway Regional Health Authority in 2020,and in the Central Norway Regional Health Authority and Northern Norway Regional Health Authority in 2021. The primary target group for the low threshold service and for treatment in outpatient clinics are persons from the age of 18 who have a sexual interest in children and/or are at risk of committing child sexual assault. They have a self-identified risk, are help-seeking and want to avoid acting on their sexual attraction. Arrangements shall be made so that persons can make direct contact, either by anonymous chat, phone or outpatient clinic, in order to get an appointment for treatment.
The Western Norway Regional Health Authority is managing the efforts to strengthen the competence and establish treatment options in all the health regions for children and adolescents with problematic or harmful sexual behaviour. In 2020, EUR 487,106 was allocated to this purpose. A national clinical network has been established to build up knowledge-based research and treatment competence in the specialist health service for children and adolescents with problematic or harmful sexual behaviour. Betanien Hospital is managing the network on behalf of the Western Norway Regional Health Authority. Regional Resource Centres for Violence, Traumatic Stress and Suicide Prevention receive earmarked funds through the state budget to strengthen the efforts to improve the treatment options for abusers. The funds in 2018 were mainly used to raise the competence of the services in their work with children and young people with harmful sexual behaviour. The centres have collaborated with Resource Unit V27 at Betanien Hospital on the distribution of the AIM (Assessment, Intervention, Moving on) tools. A practice module related to problems in the digital training programme “Talk Together”, has also been developed, cf. Chapter 3 D.
- Shadow Report from the Norwegian civil society
Article 16 –Preventive intervention and treatment programmes
Anger management courses as an alternative to violence are an important service for perpetrators of violence, however such courses are not equally available across the country. In several counties, only parts of the population have access to specialised anger management courses and, when this service exists, capacity is limited.
- Equivalent anger management services are offered in the entire country.
Date of signature: 8 December 2012
Date of ratification: 27 April 2015
Entry into force: 1 August 2015
The National Programme for Combating Family violence for 2014-2020 provides for the following actions to increase the effectiveness of the impact on people who use family violence:
- the creation and extension of support programmes for persons resorting to family violence, implemented by governmental and municipal institutions, as well as by entities and non-governmental organisations, and the elaboration of rules of cooperation between these institutions, entities and non-governmental organisations,
- Intervention and response to family violence by competent services,
- The implementation of remedial and educational programs as well as psychological and therapeutic programs for persons who use family violence
As part of the "Blue Card" procedure, a person suspected of using family violence may be called to a meeting of an interdisciplinary team or working group. Meetings with potential victims of family violence and persons suspected of using family violence cannot be held at the same time and place. Members of the interdisciplinary team or working group complete the Blue D-Sheet form in the presence of the person suspected of family violence. The members of the interdisciplinary team or working group then take action against that individual:
-Provide information on the consequences of the acts committed,
-Encourage participation in remedial and educational programs,
-Talk about the abuse of alcohol, narcotics, psychotropic substances or medication,
-Provide information on the measures needed to end family violence.
If a person suspected of using family violence abuses alcohol, members of the interdisciplinary team or working group will refer that person to the gmina committee for alcohol problem resolution.
Blue D" forms
Completed by members of interdisciplinary teams/working groups
Remedial and educational measures for people who use violence in the family are intended for
- persons convicted of offences relating to family violence, serving prison sentences in penal institutions or for whom the court has conditionally suspended the execution of a sentence, requiring them to participate in corrective and educational measures,
- persons using family violence who are involved in the treatment of alcohol or drug abuse or other narcotic drugs, psychotropic substances or their substitutes for whom remedial and educational measures may supplement basic treatment,
- persons who, due to other circumstances, request to participate in the corrective action and education program.
- the purpose of these actions towards perpetrators of family violence is to:
- prevent the continued use of violence,
- develop self-control and family life skills,
- to develop skills in the non-violent upbringing of children,
- to raise awareness of the mechanisms of family violence,
- develop the ability of perpetrators of family violence to communicate and resolve family conflicts in a non-violent manner,
- Helping to obtain information on the possibilities of following a therapy.
Remedial and educational programs for people who use family violence are conducted in the form of meetings, sessions, individual and group work. Courses are based on the "Duluth Model" program or the "Partner" model, based on the "Duluth Model" program. Creative programs are also implemented. The implementation of the programs lasts from 1 to 12 months, most often from 3 to 6 or 12 months. Detailed solutions are specified in the Regulation of the Minister of Labour and Social Policy on the standards of basic services provided by specialized support centres for victims of family violence, the qualifications of persons employed in such centres, detailed guidelines on the conduct of corrective and educational measures against persons using family violence and the qualifications of persons conducting corrective and educational measures.
Participation in remedial and educational measures may be voluntary or imposed as a result:
- a request from the prosecutor, if the accused pleads guilty and if, in the light of his or her explanations, the circumstances of the offence and his or her guilt do not raise doubts, or in the course of the enforcement proceedings,
- a request from the probation officer to implement corrective and educational measures during the enforcement proceedings,
- an application by the prison governor to the prison court to make it compulsory for the convicted person to participate in remedial and educational measures after serving his sentence, in the event of early release on parole if the convicted person was not included in such a programme during his incarceration.
The development and implementation of remedial and educational programmes is a task of government administration, carried out by the powiat. The voivodship community has the task of developing framework programmes of remedial and educational measures for persons who resort to family violence. On the website of the Ministry of Family, Labour and Social Policy there is a database of entities implementing corrective and educational programmes for persons resorting to family violence.
In 2017, 253 entities carried out remedial and educational programmes for persons resorting to family violence, 512 programmes were conducted, of which 320 were carried out by local government entities in powiats and 192 by penitentiary units. In 2018, 233 entities implemented such programmes, 487 programmes were organized, of which 289 were implemented by local government entities in powiats and 189 by penitentiary units. The development and effects of educational and remedial measures on persons resorting to family violence are monitored by the powiat or by the entities that have been requested by the powiat to implement such measures. The monitoring of the effects of the programmes is based, inter alia, on: an evaluation questionnaire filled in by the perpetrator of family violence, information from the family environment of the perpetrator, contact with employees of institutions who are in contact with the perpetrator of violence after the end of the programme (e.g. probation officers, social workers, police, teachers). The period of follow-up of perpetrators after the end of the programme varies from two months to three years. Monitoring results are used to improve corrective and educational measures and to disseminate news.
Another form of action taken to end violence is psychological and therapeutic programmes for persons resorting to family violence, for whom in-depth therapeutic or psychological measures are necessary (when participation in remedial and educational programmes has proved insufficient). Psychological and therapeutic programmes, in addition to their educational effects, also include practical exercises that provide personal experiences that change violent behaviour and attitudes and develop self-control skills. Participation in psychological and therapeutic programs is voluntary. The development and implementation, as well as the review of the effectiveness of psychological and therapeutic programmes for persons resorting to family violence, is the responsibility of the entities of the local administration of gminas and powiats, in cooperation with non-governmental organizations. Program participants are subject to an effectiveness evaluation after completion of the program; the effectiveness indicator is the number of individuals who, after completing the program, have not returned to violent behaviour. In 2017, 177 programmes were implemented and in 2018, 203 programmes were launched.
The prison administration implements programmes of corrective, educational, therapeutic, psycho-correctional, educational and preventive measures for convicted perpetrators of family violence. The actions are based on the "Duluth Model" programme; the Prison Service has also implemented a specific programme entitled "Stop Violence -Second Chance". In addition to programmes focusing on work with perpetrators of family violence, programmes are being implemented to combat aggression in the broadest sense. Programmes in the field of violence prevention and training to suppress aggression covered 11,172 convicted persons in 2017 and 10,958 convicted persons in 2018.
Officials who prepare opinions on convicted persons for abuse (article 207 of the Criminal Code), together with applications for early parole, must also submit the opinion on the possible imposition of the obligation to participate in a programme of remedial and educational measures on release if the prisoner was not subjected to such a measure while in detention. Designated prison officials work with local interdisciplinary teams -they inform the teams about the perpetrator of violence detained in the given prison unit. This enables interventions concerning the victim and the perpetrator of violence to be based on more comprehensive data. Programmes targeting perpetrators of family violence are supported by the probation service. The probation officer is obliged to cooperate with the competent local authorities and non-governmental organizations that deal with care, education, rehabilitation, treatment and social assistance in an open environment. Probation officers are part of interdisciplinary teams and can also participate in working group meetings when the "Blue Card" procedure has been initiated. The participation of the probation officer enables him/her to obtain information from other services about a particular family or the perpetrator of violence followed, as well as information about how to help victims of family violence. Probation officers also have the right to bring motions before the court to impose a duty to participate in remedial and educational measures on a convicted perpetrator of family violence.
Programmes carried out on a voluntary basis, persons who:
Have joined the Corrective Action and Education Program
Have completed the Corrective Action and Education Program
Programmes suspended during detention, persons who:
Have joined the Corrective Action and Education Program
Have completed the Corrective Action and Education Program
Individuals using violence who, after having completed a remedial and educational program have returned to abusive behaviour in the family.
Who completed the remedial and educational programmes while in detention and who were again returned to detention within 3 years due to the commission of a similar act
Remedial and educational measures, psychological and therapeutic programmes and programmes for perpetrators serving prison sentences are applied to the perpetrators of all types of violence referred to in the Law on the Prevention of Family violence, including sexual violence. The exception is made for perpetrators of offences against sexual freedom and decency who have been diagnosed with disorders of sexual preference. They are referred to one of the seven therapeutic services that run a programme for sex offenders. In 2017, 406 convicted persons have been subject to a specialized programme in view of revealed sexual preference disorder, 41 convicted persons have completed a rehabilitation and therapeutic programme for offenders against sexual freedom and indecency committed in connection with sexual preference disorder. In 2018, 377 convicted persons were covered by specialized programmes and 43 convicted persons completed a therapeutic and rehabilitation programme. The impact analysis of correctional measures in such cases is carried out on an individual basis.
*No references to article 16*
*No references to article 16*
*No references to article 16*
Date of signature: 27 June 2014
Date of ratification: 23 May 2016
Entry into force: 1 September 2016
Currently, the probation system does not have specific programs dedicated to offenders who committed domestic violence, but in some cases an anger management program designed to address the anger as the cause of the violence is applied. The program is available in all probation services. Family education, rediscovery and redefinition of the role of the family in human life, the quality of a competent and efficient parent require a responsible approach, as stand-alone profession that must be learned. In the penitentiary environment, adult education for family life is all the more necessary, since most of the persons deprived of their liberty comes from disorganized family environments, with numerous educational and social deficiencies. Thus, the program "Education for the family life", carried out at the system level, is addressed also to the persons deprived of liberty men and women, for their preparation in assuming a family role (conjugal and parental), which will focus on effective communication in the family framework and reconsider the position of those who have failed as a life partner or parent. In this context, we also mention the program "Marital and family relation", which is addressed to women deprived of liberty, since most of them come from families where the "normality" of couple's relationship refers to a completely different standard than the statistical norm or the ideal norm. The characteristics of these families are the lack of communication and affective commitment as well as the consumption of alcohol and/or psychotropic substances and physical and sexual abuse.
The program aims to inform women deprived of liberty on issues related to gender differences that do not have negative impact, the women stereotype, and the social perception of what means to be a woman and is not negatively polarized in relation to men. Particularities related to the couple, the conflict and its causes as well as the communication within the couple are also addressed. All of these are discussed by reference to their dysfunctional side, and then the switch to functionality. A particular interest it’s given to intra-family abuse, as well as its effects on both woman and the child. It also aims to raise awareness of the woman in relation to the position of victim or persecutor that she may have within the couple and to leave the dramatic triangle, implicitly blocking psychological games, discovering and focusing on resources.
Among the objectives of the program are:
- Informing women deprived of liberty about different aspects related to gender(physiologically, psychologically, socially),
- Identification of dysfunctional behaviours at the couple and family level;
- Identification of personal, family, institutional resources to which women can call in case of crises;
- Highlighting possibilities for behavioural change.
In the aforementioned coordinates, we specify that we do not have and do not collect statistical data on the persons who have fallen victim to family abuse.
It is worth mentioning that NGOs with expertise in the field have developed programs for perpetrators both in prisons and under the judicial control. Most of them are based on support groups for addictions and anger management issues, also therapeutic educational programs for people with aggressive behaviour. These programs are developed in a public-private partnership with institutions that have attributions in the field.
- The implementation of these programs is focused on the victims needs in order to ensure safety and support and the specific measures are developed in co-operation with specialist support services for women victims.
- All the programs are oriented to specific issues related to the non-violent behaviour, respect and dignity in interpersonal relation in order to assure a better understanding of the gender perspective.
- The application of the program is part of the current probation activity and is financed from the public budget.
- There are no specific measures to evaluate the impact of the programs, but statistic data about the number of program's applications are collected by the National Probation Service at the beginning of every year at the beginning of every year.
PROGRAMS FOR SEX OFFENDERS
According to the provisions of Law no.118/2019 regarding the automated national register for persons that committed sexual crimes, of exploiting persons or minors, until December 31st 2020, the automatic national register for persons that committed sexual crimes and exploitation of persons or minors will be functional, and will establish a set of obligations for convicted persons, with the scope of preventing this phenomenon and stopping perpetrators to commit the same crime again.
At the same time, in relation to the problem referred to in Chapter III, letter E, as provided for in Article 16, paragraph 1, we mention for the places of detention: Program for the primary prevention of domestic violence "STOP VIOLENCE! “, a social assistance program is carried out, and its beneficiaries are:
- Persons definitively convicted for crimes against family members;
- Persons deprived of their liberty, who, following the initial social evaluation or following the appeal were identified as having difficulties to relate with the members of the family, as a result of aggressive, violent manifestations towards them.
Also, it is to be mentioned that during the year 2019, a training of the prison administration system personnel on gender issues was organized. It was supported by a specialist from the Ministry of National Defence as a lecturer, and attended by all the heads of structures from the National Administration of Penitentiaries.
*No shadow reports*
Date of signature: 30 April 2014
Date of ratification: 28 January 2016
Entry into force: 1 May 2016
In addition to the activities in the field of prevention, taking charge and treatment of victims of violence, when collaborating with the San Marino and Italian interfaces of the anti-violence network, the SSI:
- has participated in the technical working group that led to the drafting of Decree no. 56 of 17 May 2018 together with the Ministry of Health, the Department of Foreign Affairs, the Department of Institutional Affairs and Justice, the Law enforcement agencies and the Authority for Equal Opportunities;
- arranged and signed in August 2018 an agreement with the “Breaking the silence on violence against women” Association in Rimini for the reception of women victims of violence or mothers with children in shelters;
- arranged and signed, in September 2019, a collaboration agreement with the association “Il Confine”, for the provision of counselling and intervention services to perpetrators;
- organised and conducted prevention meetings on health education: affectivity and sexuality in school;-organised and conducted workshops to prevent bullying and foster positive relationships among pupils in class or workshops to recognize and manage emotions.
In accordance with the guidelines of the Convention and in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labour and the Authority for Equal Opportunities, the SSI has carried out the following activities:1.meetings with centres dealing with psychological treatment of men abusers and signing of a collaboration agreement;2.meetings to set up a 24/7 telephone helpline to provide advice to callers victims of violence;3.meetings for the definition of victim assistance programmes with regard to financial support, housing and employment services.
In accordance with the guidelines of the Convention and in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of Labour and the Authority for Equal Opportunities, the SSI has carried out the following activities:
- Meetings with centres dealing with psychological treatment of men abusers and signing of a collaboration agreement;
- Meetings to set up a 24/7 telephone helpline to provide advice to callers victims of violence;
- Meetings for the definition of victim assistance programmes with regard to financial support, housing and employment services.
Besides collaborating for the organisation of training plans dedicated to the SSI staff, the Department of Human Sciences of the University of San Marino organizes a strong information and awareness campaign addressed to school, but also to the network of services and to citizens.
*No shadow reports*
Date of signature: 8 September 2011
Date of ratification: 5 February 2015
Entry into force: 1 June 2015
The most extensive programme for work with perpetrators of violence against women, called “Training in social skills for perpetrators of violence" (TSV) is implemented by the non-governmental organisation DNK. DNK has units in Ljubljana and Koper, and it also implements the programme for perpetrators in seven other towns –Maribor, Celje, Murska Sobota, Slovenj Gradec, Novo mesto, Nova Gorica and Radovljica. Users may join in the programme voluntarily, but they are mostly referred to it by various institutions. There are different envisaged consequences in the case that a perpetrator declines to participate (for example, probation revocation followed by serving of a prison sentence, exclusion from the programme, start of the procedure to take away a child etc.). DNK is currently the only association which implements publicly verified programmes in the field of work with perpetrators of violence. Working in the programme are 6 professional staff and 3 lay workers, who implement the programme on the entire territory of Slovenia.
TSV is currently the most widespread (both regionally, and in terms of the participating users) programme for work with perpetrators of violence in Slovenia, as well as the most recognised by the expert public. CSDs may refer perpetrators of violence to DNK programmes as part of the performance of its services. Prosecution offices refer them to the programme as part of the procedure of suspended criminal prosecution. Courts refer perpetrators of violence to the programme in the case of a suspended sentence with protective supervision and the instruction to attend the programme. Probation service refer them as part of its tasks, most frequently when it supervises the implementation of the measure of protective supervision with the mandatory instruction to attend the programme. Prisons refer perpetrators of violence to the programme before the approval of a release on parole with protective supervision. Perpetrators are occasionally referred to the programme by other organisations, such as residential communities, day centres, healthcare institutions, schools and other NGOs. These organisations may set active elimination of problems with violent behaviour as the condition for users to participate in their programmes. A total of 700 users were included in the programme in 2017, and 672 users in 2018:
Referrals to the programme in 2017:
- CSD: 351 (50.14%)
- ZPKZ: 62 (8.85%)
- PROSECUTION: 104 (14.85%)
- COURT: 83 (11.85%)
- POLICE: 0 (0%)
- OTHER NGOs: 20 (2.85%)
- SCHOOL: 8 (1.14%)
- SETTLEMENT: 1 (0.14%)
- ON THEIR OWN: 71 (10.14%)
Total: 700 (100%)
*Other NGOs which referred the users: Association Up, Project Clovek, Counselling Centre Fuzine, Sent, CZOPD, Ozara MS, HSDMS, therapist, Asylum Centre, National Institute of Public Health.
Mandatory referrals (referrals with a ruling or decision by prosecution offices, prisons or courts): 249 (35.55%).
Referrals to the programme in 2018:
- CSD: 348 (51.78%)
- ZPKZ: 59 (8.77%)
- ODT: 131 (19.49%)
- COURT: 65 (9.67%)
- SCHOOL, INSTITUTIONS: 10 (1.48%)
- OTHER NGOs: 7 (1.04%)
- ON THEIR OWN: 36 (5.35%)
- DISCIPLINARY COMMISSION: 1 (0.14%)
- PSYCHIATRIC CLINIC*: 4 (0.59%)
- PROBATION ADMINISTRATION: -
- PARENTS: 7 (1.04%)
- OTHER: 4 (0.59%)
Total: 672 (100%)
*Other NGOs which assigned the users: Association Up, Project Clovek, Counselling Centre Fuzine, Sent, CZOPD, Ozara MS, HSDMS, therapist, Asylum Centre, National Institute of Public Health.
Mandatory referrals (referrals with a ruling or decision by prosecution offices, prisons or courts):255 (37.93%).
The TSV programme has been developed with the awareness that programmes for perpetrators of violence are only one element in the network of support for victims of violence. The first objective of the programme of work with perpetrators of violence is thus to always contribute to greater safety of the victim of violence, which is why all other objectives and methods of work in the programme come second to this objective. In obtaining information about history and trends of violence, what is required besides participation of official institutions is to obtain information directly from victims of violence or indirectly from institutions which provide support. This information is important and it is necessary to obtain it upon the inclusion of users in the programme and then check it for the entire duration of the programme. The victim is the one who can give the most relevant assessment of whether the behaviour of the perpetrator of violence has changed. In addition to obtaining information about violence from the victim of violence, it is also important that the victim of violence is acquainted with the principles and methods of work in the programme and the content of the programme, and in particular with the limitations of the programme or the fact that the inclusion of perpetrators in the programme alone does not ensure sufficient safety, which is why it is important that numerous other measures are taken. The programme ensures such standards by requiring from every user upon the inclusion in the programme to sign an agreement on inclusion, with which they give their personal consent to the victim of violence (most frequently partner or former partner) having the right to be informed about the inclusion in the programme, and the right to be informed about the perpetrator's participation in the programme, in particular to get all information important for the planning of the victim's safety. Users are thus informed that the programme functions under the principle of limited confidentiality; as such practice is seen as a necessary part of taking responsibility for violence. It is because we are aware how important it is to actively cooperate with victims of violence that we do not allow users to participate in the programme anonymously. Because of the need to provide this minimum standard, the programme misses out every year on a few users who turn to the association on their own in a wish to solve their problems with violent behaviour, while not wanting to take responsibility for their acts, because they do not want other institutions to be informed about this problem. DNK pursues an active approach to establishing contact with the victim of violence by informing the relevant CSD about the user being included in the programme, and sending a letter to the victim of violence with which it informs the victim of their right to obtain and provide information. It sends the letter for the victims of violence also to other organisations which provide help to victims of violence, if it is aware of this. It also notifies the victim of violence and other institutions when the perpetrator stops participating in the programme, or when it assesses that the safety of the victim is at risk based on information obtained from the counsellor. In order to ensure safety of the victim of violence, counsellors also consistently act in accordance with Article 6 of the ZPND, and inform the relevant CSD about any suspicion of violence. When doing so they are particularly attentive in the cases when they suspect that the victim of violence is a child. Furthermore, counsellors in programmes for work with perpetrators of violence also frequently participate in multidisciplinary teams assembled with the purpose of planning assistance to a victim of violence.
It is essential to understand the aspect of gender in treating perpetrators of violence against women. The association integrates the understanding of the aspect of gender in programmes of work with perpetrators of violence at two levels. The first level is the association consistently ensuring that the professional staff who manage programmes of work for perpetrators of violence against women and children have the adequate knowledge and deep understanding of violence against women being a consequence of an unbalanced distribution of power between women and men and a broader understanding of feminist theories and the concept of equality. Counsellors are also expected to be personally engaged in the wider promotion of non-violent relations and promotion of gender equality, the ability of critical thinking about one's own identity and the role of women and men, and the sensitivity for detecting gender hierarchies and sexism. Counsellors must also be aware of their own possible tendency to violent behaviour, and of their possible experience of domestic violence.
The second level considered by the association is that the understanding of the aspect of gender inequality is a major part of the content of the TSV programme. This means that the content of the programme is created in a way which enables perpetrators of violence to better understand and recognise various forms of violence against women. They are primarily trying to broaden the users' understanding that violence against women is an indirect consequence of the fundamental structural inequality in relations between women and men. The foundations of violence against women are rooted in patriarchal cultures and traditions, which are based on the expectations and belief of men that they must establish and maintain dominance and control over women. The sources of financing and amounts for 2017 and 2018 for the TSV programme are listed in the table below.
Programmes of work with perpetrators of violence do not have direct insight into changes in behaviour of users in their everyday life. This is why conclusions about the effectiveness of the programme are made indirectly by means of the obtained information. This information is obtained by establishing contact with a victim of violence, by means of evaluation conversations with the perpetrator, as well as by obtaining official information about repeated violence from institutions, primarily the police and prosecution. The latter is sometimes impossible because of the protection of personal information (for example, notification from the police that a restraining order was again issued or report on violence filed against the enrolled user). DNK carries out internal evaluation in a method in which counsellors keep standardised documentation on each enrolled user. Based on this documentation, providers of the programme monitor the progress and changes in the behaviour of the user (by individual objectives of the programme) and make specific counselling plans. They also record an assessment of a risk for repeated violence every time a user enters or leaves the programme. External evaluation of the programme is carried out by the Social Protection Institute in the following way: counsellors record in the EVAPRO on-line database all services that they performed with a user, while users themselves complete a survey questionnaire when entering and leaving the programme.
Perpetrators of violence are also treated by numerous other experts who are directly financed by the state (social workers, doctors, psychiatrists, psychologists, prison services etc.).
A working group comprising the professional staff of the URSIKS has drafted a programme of work with perpetrators of violence in cooperation with DNK, which is implemented by the professional staff in prisons and juvenile detention centres. Work with perpetrators of violence is performed with the inclusion of convicted adults and juveniles in the TSV programmes which are adjusted to the organisation of an individual institution, staff structure, duration of sentence and specifics of the persons who perpetrate violence. Attendance of the programmes is voluntary and free of charge. In 2017, 91 persons joined the group treatment in the institution and 28 persons attended individual treatment. In 2018, 103 persons joined group treatment and 15 persons attended individual treatment. Treatment is conducted by the professional staff of the institutions. Convicted persons who use the benefits outside the institution may also join the TSV treatment programmes in DNK. Such a wide network of programmes ensures that they are available on the entire territory of the country.
In a smaller number, or exceptionally, convicted persons are also included in individual forms of work with perpetrators of violence, performed by the DNK, the Ozara National Association for Quality of Life and the Vir social rehabilitation institute. Attendance of all listed programmes is voluntary and free of charge. A total of 62 convicted persons were included in all these forms of work performed as part of the listed programmes in 2017, and 50 convicted persons in 2018. Representatives of DNK conducted workshops of non-violent communication in the Radeče juvenile detention centre twice a month between February and June 2017. In the cases of criminal acts of domestic violence, before benefits out of the institution and release are planned, institutions propose thata multi-disciplinary team for the prevention of domestic violence at the relevant CSD meets to prepare an assessment and a plan for assistance to the victim. A CSD may make such an assessment of the endangerment of the victim that the person is not awarded benefits outside the institution in an environment where they could have physical contact with the victim.
Programmes for treatment of sex offenders
A plan exists and is being implemented in Slovenia for the treatment of perpetrators of criminal acts against sexual integrity, which envisages various forms of treatment within prisons and which represents a uniform guideline implemented in all locations where such persons serve a prison sentence: Dob pri Mirni, Ljubljana, Maribor, Celje, Koper. Treatment in the Dob pri Mirni location is conducted in groups and individually, while elsewhere, where the number of such persons is smaller, it is conducted individually.
*No shadow reports*
Date of signature: 11 May 2011
Date of ratification: 10 April 2014
Date of entry into force: 1 August 2014
PROGRAMMES FOR PERPETRATORS OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE:
In accordance with the information provided by the Secretariat General of Prisons (Ministry of the Interior), there are two programmes in the application of custodial sentences that respond to article 16.1 of the Convention and which are aimed at persons sent to prison for crimes of gender violence or domestic violence. These programmes are voluntary for the inmates and are offered by the state prison administration in the geographical areas that it has responsibility for. The number of places is adapted to the demand and the need in each prison. They are run by prison staff, but this does not prevent external entities from collaborating in giving the courses in many cases. They can be run in the prison itself or outside, in cases where the inmate is allowed out for good behaviour.§Intervention programme for aggressors in cases of gender violence (PRIA): aimed at men sentenced to prison for violence against their partner or ex-partner. The data about the inmates and centres where these have been implemented in the last two years are shown below:
|No. of inmates registered||No. of inmate participants (*)||No. of prisons|
(*) Annual registrations plus inmates continuing the previous year's programme
Approximately 120 men convicted for gender violence, who are on day release or in semi-liberty, across the whole country, take part every year in this open programme.
- Intervention programme for violent behaviour (PICOVI): this is aimed at people (men or women) convicted for a crime resulting from violent conduct towards a victim and for whom there are no other more specific intervention programmes, including violence in personal relationships and, therefore, in the context of the family. The data about the different types of violence is not collected separately, so the number of persons convicted for domestic violence who take part in this programme is not known.
There are two programmes in the area of application of alternative punishments and measures that respond to article 16.1. Both of these are run by the Management Services for Alternative Punishments and Measures that exist in all parts of the country where the General State Administration is responsible and the number of places is set according to the needs at the time. They are mandatory programmes for inmates sentenced to an alternative to prison for acts of gender or domestic violence, so they must be completed. Should they not be taken or are abandoned, the courts are informed so that a custodial sentence can be imposed.
- Intervention programme for aggressors in cases of gender violence (PRIA-MA): aimed at men sentenced to prison for violence against their partner or ex-partner.
Men condemned who have taken part in the programme:
Meeting Programme (Programa Encuentro): this is aimed at men and women convicted for domestic violence (except for gender violence in the terms of Organic Law 1/2004). It covers three types of violence in the family: a) violence by women towards their partners or ex-partners; b) violence against parents: adult children towards their parents; c) violence against children: abuse of children or adolescents.
Condemned persons who have taken part in the programme
Interventions with persons convicted in alternative punishments and measures are made with special attention to situations of risk for the victim. If the existence of any imminent risk for third parties is detected during the course of the intervention, the State law-enforcement agencies are informed with the highest priority. The courts responsible for enforcement are also informed at the same time of any possible breaches in the victim’s restraining orders that may occur on the part of the offender.
All programmes have a gender focus, integrating the gender perspective as a cross-cutting element. Specifically, the PRIA / PRIA-MA programme was designed to take the principles of the Risk-Need-Responsivity model and the Good Lives model into account, with a therapeutic cognitive-behavioural approach that includes elements of the gender perspective. The goal is to eliminate the sexist beliefs of the participants by including aspects of equality education and by emphasising the influence that inequality between men and women has in gender-based violence. It also incorporates the notion of new male roles, so that participants consider the advantages of a new idea of masculinity and of the roles played by women and men in a relationship. The gender focus is also part of the design of the Meetings programme, because the family setting is a context for personal development in which intimate relations can be directly or indirectly shaped by this cultural and psychological dimension of human beings. Specifically: in most cases of violence by women against male partners or ex-partners, this violence is a reaction against a situation of abuse; between 80 and 90% of victims of intergenerational violence are women; etc.
As regards the financing of the programmes, in general they are run with the resources of the prison administration itself, by professionals of the prison service using materials provided by the administration, making it impossible to specify the budget and/or annual cost of these programmes or to separate them from the other intervention programmes carried out in the prison system. There are also entities from the third or voluntary sector that collaborate in setting up these programmes, financed by annual state subsidies. In the field of alternative punishments and measures, the sum of €281,000 is assigned to these entities for carrying out these programmes, and they represent a major part of the interventions made with men convicted for crimes of gender violence.
In the area of custodial sentences, the evaluation of the intervention programme with gender violence aggressors was carried out by professors of the Psychology Department of the Complutense University of Madrid. It consisted of a comparison of the results of psychological assessment tests completed before and after treatment. In the area of alternative punishments and measures, the effectiveness of the intervention programme with male aggressors of gender-based violence was assessed at national level with a sample of 770 convicts (studies published in 2012 and 2017). This effectiveness is calculated at two different points: one year after the sample convicts have completed therapy, and again five years later. The assessment aims to measure the changes due to therapy (per and post treatment) and to analyse reoffending rates, with attention focused on new police reports. The results obtained reveal a significant therapeutic change after the intervention in those taking treatment: their attitudes were less sexist and they displayed less jealousy and emotional abuse of their partners, their relationships were less conflictive, with more empathy in general, less anger and better control of their anger, after completing the treatment. One year after the intervention and therapeutic treatment, the police had received no new reports about 95.4% of the participants in the programme for alleged gender violence offences, and after five years 93.2% of them had still not been reported to the police. For its part, the Meetings programme added an assessment protocol consisting of a semi-structured interview and psychometric questionnaires that professionals can use before and after the intervention to measure any therapeutic changes.
PROGRAMMES FOR SEX OFFENDERS:
According to the information provided by the Secretariat General for Prisons (Ministry of the Interior), there is a treatment programme for sex offenders included as part of the application of custodial sentences. These programmes are voluntary for the inmates and are offered by the state prison administration in the geographical areas that it has responsibility for. The number of places is adapted to the demand and the need in each prison. They can be run in the prison itself or outside, in cases where the inmate is allowed out for good behaviour.
- Sexual Assault Control Programme (PCAS), this is equally aimed at men convicted of sexually assaulting adults and those who abuse children. The data about the inmates and centres where these programmes have been implemented in the last two years are shown below:
|No. of inmates registered||No. of inmates participants (*)||No. of prisons|
*Annual registrations plus inmates continuing the previous year's programme
Approximately 100 men sent to prison for sexual assault offences, who are on day release or in semi-liberty, across the whole country, take part every year in this open programme.
There are two programmes in the area of alternative punishments and measures that respond to the indications of article 16.2. They are mandatory programmes for inmates sentenced to an alternative to prison, so they must be completed. Should they be abandoned, the courts are informed so that a custodial sentence can be imposed.-Sexual Assault Control Programme (PCAS), this is equally aimed at men convicted of sexually assaulting adults and those who abuse children.
Men convicted who have taken part in the PCAS* programme
|In 2016||In 2017|
- Off-line Programme (Programa Fuera de Red) is an intervention for online child sex offenders. It is aimed at persons convicted of the offence of possessing and/or distributing child pornography and subject to an alternative measure treatment programme. All those convicted of this offence are men.
Convicted persons who have taken part in the Off-line programme (all are men)
|In 2016||In 2017|
Special attention in any intervention in the framework of these programmes is paid to situations of risk for the victim, in accordance with the content of the previous section (III.E).
The current programme for controlling sexual assault (PCAS) adds the gender perspective to its approach in the unit dealing with cognitive distortion. A working group is currently being set up to integrate this perspective fully in the programme for sex offenders in 2019, to comply with the State Pact against Gender-based Violence. The Off-line programme does not include gender perspective in its methodology.
Concerning the financing of these programmes, the details in the previous section (III.E) should be taken into account.
As regards the evaluation of the PCAS programme implemented in prisons, it was carried out by professors belonging to the Psychology Department of Barcelona University. It consisted of a comparison of the results of psychological assessment tests completed before and after treatment. The development of this programme in the area of alternative punishments and measures includes an assessment protocol consisting of a semi-structured interview and psychometric questionnaires that professionals can use before and after the intervention to measure any therapeutic changes. However, no assessment has been developed at national level to evaluate the effectiveness of this programme through reoffending rates of the persons convicted. The Off-line programme includes an assessment protocol consisting of a semi-structured interview and psychometric questionnaires that professionals can use before and after the intervention to measure any therapeutic changes. However, no assessment has been developed at national level to evaluate the effectiveness of this programme through reoffending rates of the persons convicted.
In 2016, 3.395 men went to prison for GV crimes. Since 2012 it has been the third reason for imprisonment, and 26.190 (88%) were condemned to alternative measures different to incarceration. Judgements that do not include incarceration are on the increase and the number of perpetrators that are having counselling have decreased. The availability of these therapies is compulsory in prisons according to Art 42 of OAGV and is optional for the courts according to Art 35. They intend to eliminate the exclusively punitive nature of these convictions, to improve their self-esteem and control, to reduce the recidivism (estimated at 20%) and thus protect the direct or indirect victims and their children and relatives. There are three types of programs:
- Re-training in prison facilities of inmates condemned for GV against their partner or former partner. In most prison facilities, there is a weekly group session of one year’s duration. In order to re-insert perpetrators of sexual aggression there are courses on how to “live without Violence” and to prepare for exit permits, inadequate when confronted with beliefs such as “children also want sexual relations”, “even if a women is forced, she surely enjoys it”.
- Alternative therapies or suspension of prison judgments. If the judgement is under 2 years of imprisonment and the perpetrator has no prior convictions, the courts will send him to a psychological group or individual therapy from 10 months to a year, which is recognized by the State Penitentiary Institutions (in Catalonia by the Department of Justice of the Catalonian Government) so they can learn to control impulses, reduce their anger and learn how to empathize with women. In 2016, 7.659 men enrolled into the intervention program for perpetrators (called PRIA-MA). 29% of the 26.190 had been sentenced to alternatives measures to prison (in 2015 there were 8.135 registered, 33% of the 24.681 who were condemned). Only 358 (4,7%) enrolled by court order and to avoid prison. The social services of the Penitentiary institutions manage approx. 50 services of their own and have agreements with universities, NGO, Autonomous Regions Governments and Professional Schools of Psychology (several including training for professionals). In the State Pact against Gender Violence, Spain’s Senate proposed to create enough to cover needs, to make it compulsory and to ensure therapists training.
- Volunteer programs for non-incarcerated perpetrators of violence depend on local authorities, Autonomous Regions, NGO’s and others. They are not directly associated with the judicial system. They are workshops for men who admit being violent, but are not forced by any judgement or judicial order. There is no data on the participants. There is no evaluation data, there is an estimated high rate of dropout or rejection. Feminist organizations ask that resources for the victims do not depend on the perpetrator’s attendance. In general social services and in those specialized in the elderly, disability, migrants or children, there are no state or regional protocols for prevention, intervention or referral to specialized services in GV (Art 18.2 and 20.2). There is a significant lack of data on detections and on professional training in GV.
- Joint Shadow Report on FGM by End FGM European Network, Medicos del Mundo, Save a girl – Save a generation and UNAF (Union de asociaciones familiars)
*No references to article 16*